CyberSecurity – Basic Networking Concepts

Network security is about protecting your organizations network from unwanted visitors and digital troublemakers. It involves controlling access resources on the network using various methods. Basicc network security concepts are explained in this article.

The Threats:

  • Intruders: Imagine sneaky characters trying to break into your network. These could be hackers trying to steal data or wreak havoc.
  • Malware: This is malicious software, like viruses or worms, that can spread through your network and damage devices or steal information.
  • Data Breaches: If someone gets access to your network, they might try to steal sensitive data like financial records or personal information.

The Protections:

  • Firewalls: These act as gatekeepers, checking all incoming and outgoing traffic and only allowing authorized connections. Think of it as a security guard checking IDs at the castle gate.
  • Access Control: This involves giving users different levels of permission to access parts of the network. Not everyone needs the keys to the king’s treasury!
  • Encryption: This scrambles data using a secret code, making it unreadable to anyone who doesn’t have the key. Imagine sending secret messages in a code only your allies can understand.
  • Anti-malware Software: This is like having a knight on patrol, constantly scanning for and eliminating threats like viruses and worms.
  • Network Segmentation: Dividing your network into smaller zones can limit the damage if one area gets breached. Think of having separate walled sections within your castle to slow down an attacker.

Security Best Practices:

  • Strong Passwords: Complex passwords are harder to crack than “password123”. Imagine using a complex combination lock instead of a simple one for your castle gate.
  • Software Updates: Keeping your software up to date often includes security patches that fix vulnerabilities. Patching holes in your castle walls keeps invaders out.
  • User Awareness: Educate everyone on the network about cybersecurity threats and how to avoid them. Train your castle guards to identify suspicious activity.

By following these basic concepts, you can create a strong defense for your network and keep your data safe and secure. Network security is an ongoing process, so it’s important to stay up to date in implementation of security processes and evaluate the effectiveness from time to time.

A more detailed article is available at, check out  CCST CyberSecurity exam notes. As many of you in security domain are aware, Cisco is offering CCST CyberSecurity certification for aspiring professionals in security domain.

Top Networking and Security Career Certifications

Computer networking is a fast growing area for the past several years. There has always been demand for network engineers and administrators across the sectors. Top 5 networking certifications, along with a brief description of topics covered, and practice test providers are given below for new entrants that are exploring to start a career in networking and network security.

  1. Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA)
  • Brief description: An entry-level certification that validates your understanding of networking fundamentals, including IP addressing, network security, and Cisco technologies.

Topics covered:

  • Networking fundamentals
  • IP addressing
  • VLANs and routing
  • Network security fundamentals
    • Automation and programmability

Prep Information, Practice test, exam guides providers:

  1. CompTIA Network+
  • Network+ (Network Plus) is a vendor-neutral certification that covers a broad range of networking topics, including network technologies, security, and troubleshooting.

Topics covered:

  • Networking concepts
  • Network infrastructure
  • IP addressing
  • Security essentials
  • Network devices
  • Troubleshooting

Prep Information, Practice test, exam guides providers:

  1. AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate
  • An associate-level certification that validates your ability to design and deploy secure, scalable, and cost-effective architectures on the AWS platform. While not strictly a networking certification, it covers many relevant networking topics.

Topics covered:

  • Design principles and best practices
  • Cloud architecture design
  • Implementing core infrastructure
  • Security features
  • Cost management

Study materials, practice tests, and other useful resources:

  1. Microsoft Certified Azure Network Engineer Associate

ANEA is an associate-level certification that validates your ability to implement and manage Microsoft Azure networking solutions.

Topics covered:

  • Azure networking fundamentals
  • Implementing virtual networks
  • Configuring network security groups
  • Managing public IP addresses
  • Connecting to on-premises networks

Practice test providers:

  1. Juniper Networks Certified Associate – Junos (JNCIA-Junos)

    Juniper Networks Certified Associate Junos (JNCIAJunos) certification logo

JNCIA – JUNOS is an entry-level certification that validates your knowledge of the Junos operating system, used by Juniper networking devices.

Topics covered:

  • Junos basics
  • Routing fundamentals
  • Switching fundamentals
  • Security basics
  • Management and automation

Practice test providers:

The best certification for you will depend on your experience, career goals, and the specific networking technologies you want to focus on. For career starters, CCNA and JNCIA both provide very good fundamentals knowledge, though both focus on respective networking operation systems for learning purpose. Releases Sim-Ex Exam Sim for A+ Core 1 provides Sim-Ex Practice Tests for A+ Core 1 to help individuals prepare for the CompTIA®  A+ certification exams. The A+™ certification is a well-known credential for entry-level IT professionals and covers a wide range of IT topics, including hardware, software, troubleshooting, and more. Practice tests from can be valuable tools to assess your knowledge and readiness for the A+ exams.

These practice tests typically include questions and answers covering various exam objectives, and they often come with explanations and references to help you understand the material and the correct answers. Using practice tests can be an effective way to gauge your preparedness and identify areas where you may need additional study.

For the most current information on their A+ practice tests and any updates to their offerings, I recommend visiting their official website or contacting them directly.

Important features of Exam Sims: What to look for in certification practice tests:

  1. Realistic Exam Format: Practice tests should closely mimic the format of the actual exam, including the type and structure of questions, the time constraints, and the number of questions.
  2. Content Alignment: Ensure that the practice tests cover the same topics and objectives as the actual exam. They should be aligned with the official exam blueprint or syllabus.
  3. Varied Question Types: Practice tests should include various question types, such as multiple-choice, multiple-select, drag-and-drop, simulations (for technical certifications), and more. This variety helps you become familiar with different question formats.
  4. Detailed Explanations: Each question should come with a detailed explanation of the correct answer and, if applicable, why the incorrect answers are wrong. This helps you understand the underlying concepts.
  5. References and Resources: Good practice tests often provide references to relevant study materials, books, or online resources, helping you further your knowledge in areas where you may be weak.
  6. Customization: The ability to customize practice tests by selecting specific topics or areas of weakness can be very helpful. This allows you to focus on the areas where you need the most improvement.
  7. Timed Practice: You should be able to take timed practice tests to simulate the real exam environment. Time management is a critical skill in many exams.
  8. Performance Tracking: The practice test platform should offer performance tracking and analytics. This includes score summaries, progress reports, and the ability to review your previous attempts.
  9. Mobile Compatibility: If you prefer to study on the go, having access to practice tests on mobile devices can be a significant advantage.
  10. Accessibility: Ensure that the practice tests are user-friendly and accessible to people with disabilities, meeting standards like WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines).
  11. Customer Support: A good practice test provider should offer customer support to assist with technical issues or questions about the material.
  12. Regular Updates: Certification exams change over time, and practice tests should be updated to reflect these changes. Look for a provider that commits to keeping their content current.
  13. Pricing and Licensing Options: Consider the pricing and licensing options. Some providers offer subscription models, while others sell practice tests individually.
  14. Community and Forums: Some practice test providers offer online communities or forums where you can discuss questions, share experiences, and seek guidance from others preparing for the same exam.
  15. Security and Privacy: Ensure that the practice test platform takes data privacy and security seriously, especially if you are required to provide personal information.

Other practice tests available from include A+ Core 2 practice tests, CCNA practice tests and Juniper JNCIA. is not affiliated with any certification vendor, and Sim-Ex™ Practice Exams are written independently and not affiliated or authorized by respective certification providers. Sim-Ex™ is a trade mark of or entity representing A+™ is a trademark of CompTIA® organization.




Tutorialsweb – Free Certification Exam Cram Notes Released is a popular online platform that offers a wide range of educational resources and tutorials on various topics. The website was launched in 2015 and has since become a go-to destination for students, professionals, and anyone interested in learning new skills or enhancing their knowledge.

One of the standout features of is its user-friendly interface. The website is well-organized and easy to navigate, making it simple for users to find the information they need. The homepage features a search bar, which allows users to quickly search for specific tutorials or topics. The site is also organized into categories, such as programming, web development, data science, and design, making it easy for users to find tutorials related to their interests. offers a wide range of tutorials on various topics. The website is particularly popular among students and professionals in the field of IT, offering tutorials on programming languages such as Python, Java, and C++, as well as tutorials on web development frameworks like AngularJS, React, and Node.js. Other popular topics include data science, artificial intelligence, and design. The following exam cram notes have been added recently:

The tutorials on are well-written and informative, with step-by-step instructions and examples that make it easy for users to follow along. The site also includes screenshots and diagrams to help users visualize the concepts being taught. Each tutorial is also accompanied by a comments section, where users can ask questions and get help from other users.

Another noteworthy feature of is its blog section. The blog features articles on a wide range of topics related to IT, including news, trends, and insights. The articles are well-researched and written by experts in the field, making them a valuable resource for anyone looking to stay up-to-date on the latest developments in the IT industry.

In addition to tutorials and articles, also offers a range of other resources to help users learn and enhance their skills. These include eBooks, cheat sheets, and quizzes. The eBooks cover a wide range of topics, including programming languages, web development, data science, and design. The cheat sheets provide quick reference guides for commonly used tools and frameworks, while the quizzes allow users to test their knowledge and track their progress.

One of the most impressive things about is the sheer volume of content available on the site. The website is updated regularly with new tutorials, articles, and resources, ensuring that users always have access to the latest information and tools. The site also has a large community of users, who are active in the comments sections and forums, providing support and guidance to other users.

In short, is an excellent resource for anyone looking to learn new skills or enhance their knowledge. With its user-friendly interface, well-written tutorials, informative articles, and range of other resources, the site is a valuable tool for students, professionals, and anyone interested in IT. Whether you’re just starting out or looking to expand your skillset, has something to offer. Updates Juniper JNCIA JN0-104 Practice Tests

The JNCIA-Junos (JN0-104) exam is designed to test the candidate’s knowledge and understanding of the Juniper Networks Junos operating system and device administration. The exam covers topics such as networking fundamentals, Junos device operations, and basic routing and switching concepts. Some specific topics that may be covered on the JN0-104 exam include:

  • Understanding the Junos operating system and architecture
  • Managing and monitoring Junos devices
  • Configuring basic routing and switching features
  • Understanding routing policies and firewall filters
  • Monitoring and troubleshooting network issues

It’s always good to check with Juniper Networks for the latest exam information, as the topics and format of the exam may be updated periodically.

How does JNCIA compare with CCNA?

CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) and JNCIA (Juniper Networks Certified Internet Associate) are both entry-level certifications in networking, but they have some differences:
  1. Vendor focus: CCNA is specific to Cisco systems and technologies, while JNCIA is specific to Juniper systems and technologies.
  2. Exam content: CCNA covers a range of topics, including network fundamentals, network access, IP connectivity, IP services, security fundamentals, and automation and programmability. JNCIA covers a similar range of topics, including an introduction to Juniper Networks, the Junos operating system, routing and switching, and basic security.
  3. Exam format: CCNA exams are typically multiple choice and simulations. JNCIA exams consist of multiple choice questions.
  4. Recertification: CCNA certification is valid for three years, and recertification requires passing a current CCNA exam or a higher-level exam. JNCIA certification is valid for three years, and recertification requires passing the current JNCIA exam.
  5. Career opportunities: CCNA is a well-respected and widely recognized certification, and is a requirement for many entry-level network engineering positions. JNCIA is also a well-respected certification, but is primarily focused on Juniper systems and technologies. Large organizations and data centers employ such equipment, and Juniper devices are found less frequently at retair stores.

In short, both CCNA and JNCIA are valuable certifications for entry-level network engineers, but the choice between the two will depend on your career goals and the systems and technologies you want to specialize in. If you are interested in pursuing a career in networking with Cisco systems, then CCNA is the way to go. If you are interested in pursuing a career in networking with Juniper systems, then JNCIA is the way to go.

Free Comptia A+ Exam notes is offering free exam notes on Comptia A+ Core 1 and A+ Core 2 exams. The exam notes covers recent topics as included in Comptia A+ certification.

Exam notes prioritises information and enbles to review the entire syllabus in a relatively short span of time. These notes is focused on key ideas, using brief points, and abbreviations to quickly express topics. Usually exam notes are much shorter and will only focus on one or two topics of study, typically the ones about to be tested on. Exam notes are almost always concise, to the point and cut out any information that isn’t absolutely essential.

In exam notes, written by subject matter experts, you will find important points that you need to review before attending an exam. Other exam notes available include Security+ exam cram, and Server+ exam cram. Please check out the website for available study resources and references to external resource sites. Good luck!

Check this out if you are looking for Comptia A+ Labs Releases CCNA 200-301 Practice Tests, leading practice tests and lab sims provider, released CCNA practice tests conforming to the latest exam objectives, 200-301. The previous version of the exam 200-125 retired on 24th Feb 2020 and the current exam became live on 24th Feb 2020. The exam topics for the new CCNA are given below:

  1. Network Fundamentals (20%)
  2. Network Access (20%)
  3. IP Connectivity (25%)
  4. IP Services (10%)
  5. Security Fundamentals (15%)
  6. Automation and Programmability (10%)

Some of the topics from previous version, such as OSI layer, EIGRP had been removed (though not completely) and a few new topics have been added. The new topics are listed below:

  1. Cisco DNA center
  2. Cisco WLC controller
  3. Security (extended to a large extent)

The two exam path (CCENT + ICND2) has been discontinued. Now, there is only one exam, that is CCNA at associate level. CCNA Security, and other CCNA XXXX have been retired permanently. There are no replacement exams for them.

You may check out the exam topics here:

If you want to download practice tests for 200-301 exam, follow the link below:

Also, check out the CCNA cram notes here:



Cisco CCNA 200-125 Retires on 23rd Feb 2020

CCNA, short for Cisco Certified Network Associate, is one of the premier certs in the area of networking. The topics usually covered by CCNA include TCP/IP and OSI stacks, IPv4 subnets, IP v6 addressing schemes, STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks), ACLs (Access Control Lists), routing protocols such as RIP v2, OSPF and OSPF v3, BGP, and wireless networks. The new syllabus deviated from the past very significantly. Notable deletions were RIP v2, OSPF v3, and TCP/IP fundamentals. Notable additions are WLC (Wireless Controllers, specifically Cisco WLC), DNA (Cisco Digital Network Architecture,  and network security. Candidates are expected to learn Cisco centric technologies like WLC GUI and DNA in addition to usual iOS that runs on Cisco routers and switches. DNA is the Cisco’s solution to recently emerging Open Networks Architecture.

Apart from the above, two exams track is going to be discontinued. i.e. CCENT (Cisco Certified Entry Network Technician) and ICND2 (Inter Connecting Network Devices 2) exams together used to qualify a candidate to be Cisco certified. It appears that ths track is being discontinued.

Over all, it is expected that the new exam is broader in covering various technologies including the following:

  1. Wireless Controllers
  2. Network Security
  3. DNA (Open Source project that compares with this is Open Daylight project)
  4. Router and Switch iOS

It is recommended that those who are in the middle of preparation for the existing version of CCNA (200-125) complete the same before the deadline (23rd Feb 2020) as the new objectives of the exam require lot of time and effort due to significant differences in exam topics. offers the following for CCNA 200-125:

  1. CCNA Practice Tests (200-125)
  2. CCNA Network Simulator with Designer
  3. CCNA Cheatsheets
  4. CCNA Online Labs (Physical lab access)

Wish you all good luck! Website Update

ExamGuidesThe website has been updated recently for better user experience. The website is compliant with Mobile First design as specified by Google and other major search engines. Further, breadcrumbs have been added for better navigation. Check it out and leave your comments. Major Update to Mobile First Responsive Site

The website  has undergone a major update towards fully responsive site. A fully responsive site, also called Mobile First, provides uniform appearance on mobile as well as desktop devices.

The website uses HTML5, CSS3, Media Query, and JQuery for coding and breadcrumbs aided navigation for better user experience. Typical screen shots for various devices are given below:

The mobile version of the site consists of the same menu items as that of the desktop site, but customized to the mobile device. The menu is user friend and the web page contents are readily accessible with just scrolling vertically.

As may be seen, the first level menu consists of Certification Notes, Electronic Assembly, Satellite Communications, Computers & Networks, RF Test & Meas, and Software. On clicking the first level menus, a user would be presented with second level menu as shown in the figure below:

For example, the Main Menu tab Certification Notes has four Sub-Menu items, namely, Comptia Certificaiton, Cisco Certifications, ITIL Certifications, and Others. By clicking on respective sub-menu item, one would be taken to the third-level menu link or to the corresponding web page as applicable. In this particular case, third level menu item is presented as shown in the figure below:

The third level menu items consist of A+ Cert Exam, Network+ Cert Exam, Server+ Cert Exam, and Security+ Cert Exam. On clicking the hyperlink, one will be taken to the respective web page as shown below:

Reponsive Website Design –

As may be seen in the figure to the right, the web page consists of navigation bread crumbs giving the path to the current page. In this example, it is Certification Notes > A+ Cert Exam > A+ Essentials Cram Notes (An ad appearing below that and followed by the notes).

The website has been thoroughly updated and reviewed for design and visual interface so that web pages are rendered properly in all possible mobile and desktop devices.

Please email us the feedback if you find any bugs or suggest any improvements.